moctezuma ii biography

p.195, 134–35. info)),[N.B. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Today his name has a lot of spellings, including Montezuma and Motecuhzoma. During this time, Moctezuma served as a general under his uncle. A nephew of Moctezuma II was Diego de Alvarado Huanitzin. As the Spaniards approached Tenochtitlán they made an alliance with the Tlaxcalteca, who were enemies of the Aztec Triple Alliance, and they helped instigate revolt in many towns under Aztec dominion. Montezuma became Cortes’s prisoner in Tenochtitlan. In Book 12 of the twelve-volume Florentine Codex, the account in Spanish and Nahuatl is accompanied by illustrations by natives. Though some indigenous accounts written in the 1550s partly support this notion, it is still unbelievable for several reasons. [21], Ethnohistorian Susan Gillespie has argued that the Nahua understanding of history as repeating itself in cycles also led to a subsequent rationalization of the events of the conquests. Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – June 1520) was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, from 1502 until his death. Díaz alleges that the Aztecs informed Moctezuma that a relative of his had risen to the throne and ordered their attack to continue until all of the Spanish were annihilated, but expressed remorse at Moctezuma's captivity and stated that they intended to revere him even more if they could rescue him. While some historians such as Warren H. Carroll consider this as evidence that Moctezuma was at least open to the possibility that the Spaniards were divinely sent based on the Quetzalcoatl legend, others such as Matthew Restall argue that Moctezuma politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean, as politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. [9], According to Cortés, Moctezuma immediately volunteered to cede his entire realm to Charles V, King of Spain. He described Moctezuma's issue and estimates them to be nineteen – eleven sons and eight daughters. Cortés later melted these down for their monetary value. Pagden has written that "There is no preconquest tradition which places Quetzalcoatl in this role, and it seems possible therefore that it was elaborated by Sahagún and Motolinía from informants who themselves had partially lost contact with their traditional tribal histories". Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún recorded two versions of the conquest of Mexico from the Tenochtitlán-Tlatelolco viewpoint. Moctezuma II, également connu sous plusieurs variantes orthographique (Moteuczoma ou Motecuhzoma), de son nom complet Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin est le neuvième souverain (Tlatoani) qui a gouverné sur l'ancienne capitale de l'empire d'aztèque : Mexico-Tenochtitlan de 1502 jusqu'à sa mort en 1520. of New Mexico Press, 2007, Page 86–88. Moctezuma continued to govern his empire and even undertook conquests of new territory during the Spaniards' stay at Tenochtitlán. 1519 Hernán Cortés entra en Tenochtitlán. Moctezuma II biography timelines // 1466 Montezuma was born in 1466 to Axayacatl, the sixth Aztec Emperor, and Xochicueyetl. As a symbol of resistance against the Spanish, the name of Moctezuma has been invoked in several indigenous rebellions. Pedro Moctezuma, son of Montezuma II; Isabel Moctezuma (1509/1510 – 1550/1551), daughter of Montezuma II . Moctezuma II (egentligen Moteuczoma Xocoyotl eller Motēuczōmā Xocoyotzīn (äldre västerländskt även Montezuma) som på nahuatl betyder "Den ursinnige herren den yngre". Biografía de Moctezuma, su nombre completo es Moctezuma Xocoyotzin, también conocido como Moctezuma II.Nació en el año 1466 en Tenochtitlán y falleció en 1520 en la actual Ciudad de México. Also, according to Spanish law, the king had no right to demand that foreign peoples become his subjects, but he had every right to bring rebels to heel. Her mother was Teotlalco who was also Moctezuma's principal wife. Montezuma II, ninth Aztec emperor of Mexico, famous for his dramatic confrontation with the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes. Moctezuma in particular is depicted unfavorably as a weak-willed, superstitious, and indulgent ruler. Numerous other works of popular culture have mentioned or referred to Moctezuma: Ninth tlatoani of the Aztec Empire in Tenochtitlán. During the siege of the city, the sons of Moctezuma were murdered by the Aztecs, possibly because they wanted to surrender. [25] Bernardino de Sahagún, who compiled the Florentine Codex, was also a Franciscan priest. The ninth ruler of the Aztec empire, Montezuma II (1466-1520) was seized by the Spanish conquistadores, who used him to control and rule the empire. In his Second Letter, Cortés describes his first encounter with Moctezuma thus: "Moctezuma [sic] came to greet us and with him some two hundred lords, all barefoot and dressed in a different costume, but also very rich in their way and more so than the others. The original Nahuatl form of his name was pronounced Template:IPA. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II tried to strengthen the Habsburg empire with his enlightened reforms, but the changes he made were met with fierce opposition. The clothes he wore one day he did not wear again till three or four days later. Juni 1520 in Tenochtitlán, Mexiko) war von 1502 bis zu seinem Tod 1520 Herrscher über das Reich der Azteken. Much of the idea of Cortés being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex, written some 50 years after the conquest. [33] She had children by the latter two, from whom descend the illustrious families of Andrade-Montezuma and Cano-Montezuma. Philip II reigned over Macedonia from 359 to 336 B.C. In the codex's description of the first meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés, the Aztec ruler is described as giving a prepared speech in classical oratorical Nahuatl, a speech which as described verbatim in the codex (written by Sahagún's Tlatelolcan informants) included such prostrate declarations of divine or near-divine admiration as, "You have graciously come on earth, you have graciously approached your water, your high place of Mexico, you have come down to your mat, your throne, which I have briefly kept for you, I who used to keep it for you," and, "You have graciously arrived, you have known pain, you have known weariness, now come on earth, take your rest, enter into your palace, rest your limbs; may our lords come on earth." He was particularly committed to his religion. Biography. [12] Díaz gives this account: "They had hardly finished this speech when suddenly such a shower of stones and darts were discharged that (our men who were shielding him having neglected for a moment their duty, because they saw how the attack ceased while he spoke to them) he was hit by three stones, one on the head, another on the arm and another on the leg, and although they begged him to have the wounds dressed and to take food, and spoke kind words to him about it, he would not. Moctezuma Xocoyotzin (c. 1466 – 29 June 1520) modern Nahuatl pronunciation ),, variant spellings include Motecuhzomatzin, Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, Muteczuma, and referred to retroactively in European sources as Moctezuma II, was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of the Aztec Empire, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The leader of the Aztecs at the time of the Spanish conquest Montezuma II (also known as Moctezuma II) was trained as a priest and rose to become leader of the Aztecs in 1502. Leonor Cortés Moctezuma (born c. 1528), illegitimate daughter of Hernán Cortés and Isabel Montezuma He was killed soon after, and the Aztec empire came to an end. [26] These legends are likely a part of the post-conquest rationalization by the Aztecs of their defeat, and serve to show Moctezuma as indecisive, vain, and superstitious, and ultimately the cause of the fall of the Aztec Empire. As Aztec rulers spoke an overly polite language that needed translation for his subjects to understand, it is difficult to find out what Moctezuma really said. The belief of the Aztecs being rendered passive by their own superstition is referred to by Matthew Restall as part of "The Myth of Native Desolation" to which he dedicates chapter 6 in his book Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1883) History of Mexico, Vol. info)), was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. Moctezuma ordered that he be kept informed of any new sightings of foreigners at the coast and posted extra watch guards to accomplish this. Oscar Hammerstein II collaborated with Richard Rodgers on popular musicals such as ‘Oklahoma!,’ ‘South Pacific,’ ‘Carousel,’ ‘The King and I’ and ‘The Sound of Music.’. Albuquerque: Univ. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Moctezuma Xocoyotzin (en náhuatl Motēuczōma Xōcoyōtzin; AFI [moteːkʷˈsoːma ʃoːkoˈjoːtsin]: ‘Moctezuma el joven’) o Moctezuma II (1466 - 29 de junio de 1520) fue tlatoani de los mexicas en el periodo 1502-1520. [citation needed] One such example was the rebellion of the Virgin Cult in Chiapas in 1721, where the followers of the Virgin Mary rebelled against the Spanish after having been told by an apparition of the virgin that Moctezuma would be resuscitated to assist them against their Spanish oppressors. In Mexico, the contemporary Pames, Otomi, Tepehuán, Totonac, and Nahua peoples are reported to worship earth deities named after Moctezuma. He received a thoroughly fair education in Art, Science and Religion during his early days. Nicholas II was the last tsar of Russia under Romanov rule. Shortly thereafter, Cortés left to fight Pánfilo de Narváez, who had landed in Mexico to arrest Cortés. The details of his death are unknown, with different versions of his demise given by different sources. • A reconstructed portrait of Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, based on historical sources, in a contemporary style. [citation needed], At some time during that period, Moctezuma became a prisoner in his own house. Moctezuma Xocoyotzin, o Moctezuma ‘el respetable hijo último’, nació en 1466, tres años antes de que su padre, Axayácatl, fuera elegido sexto emperador o tlatoani azteca. So when Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived in 1519, Montezuma saw some of his subjects turn against him. Of his many wives may be named the princesses Teitlalco, Acatlan, and Miahuaxochitl, of whom the first named appears to have been the only legitimate consort. Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. The name signifies frowning and kingly anger. He was the grandson of the first ruler of Tenochtitlan. a comet, the burning of a temple, a crying ghostly woman, and others. In the subsequent battles with the Spaniards after Cortés' return, Moctezuma was killed. He was in power during one of the key chapters in the history of Mexico, when the Spanish conquistadors arrived on April 21st, 1519. In Spanish, he is called Moctezuma. During his reign, the Aztec Empire reached its greatest size. Montezuma II was the ninth and last emperor of the Aztec Empire. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era. It is a compound of a noun meaning "lord" and a verb meaning "to frown in anger", and so is interpreted as "he is one who frowns like a lord," "he who is angry in a noble manner," or "he who angers himself." He became the head of an empire that was expanded by his son and successor, Alexander the Great. Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – June 1520) was the ninth ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.The first contact between Indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.During his reign the Aztec Empire reached its maximal size. In 1865 (coincidentally during the Second Mexican Empire), the title, which was held by Antonio María Moctezuma-Marcilla de Teruel y Navarro, 14th Count of Moctezuma de Tultengo, was elevated to that of a Duke, thus becoming Duke of Moctezuma, with de Tultengo again added in 1992 by Juan Carlos I. Descendants of Pedro Tesifón de Moctezuma included (through an illegitimate child of his son Diego Luis) General Jerónimo Girón-Moctezuma, 3rd Marquess de las Amarilas (1741–1819), a ninth-generation descendant of Moctezuma II, who was commander of the Spanish forces at the Battle of Fort Charlotte, and his grandson, Francisco Javier Girón y Ezpeleta, 2nd Duke of Ahumada and 5th Marquess of the Amarillas who was the founder of the Guardia Civil in Spain. At the time, the Aztecs controlled most of what is now Mexico and Central America, their capital being at the great city of Tenotchitlan (Mexico City). [22], Some of the Aztec stories about Moctezuma describe him as being fearful of the Spanish newcomers, and some sources, such as the Florentine Codex, comment that the Aztecs believed the Spaniards to be gods and Cortés to be the returned god Quetzalcoatl. According to an indigenous account, he said to Cortés: "You have come to sit on your seat of authority, which I have kept for a while for you, where I have been in charge for you, for your agents the rulers..." However, these words might be a polite expression that was meant to convey the exact opposite meaning, which was common in Nahua culture; Moctezuma might actually have intended these words to assert his own stature and multigenerational legitimacy. Moctezuma had numerous wives and concubines by whom he fathered an enormous family, but only two women held the position of queen – Tlapalizquixochtzin and Teotlalco. He was a brother of Chimalpopoca, Tlacaelel I, and Huehue Zaca. In the Quisteil rebellion of the Yucatec Maya in 1761, the rebel leader Jacinto Canek reportedly called himself "Little Montezuma".[39]. Även med "Ilhuicamina", "Han som skjuter en pil mot himlen"). published in the United States in 1892. 1520Muerte de Moctezuma II. The grandson of Moctezuma II, Pedro's son, Ihuitemotzin, baptized as Diego Luis de Moctezuma, was brought to Spain by King Philip II. Moctezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (1466 - 1520) and often called Montezuma in English, was the Aztec emperor (tlahtoani) from 1502 to 1520. It is a compound of a noun meaning "lord" and a verb meaning "to frown in anger", and so is interpreted as "he is one who frowns like a lord"[3] or "he who is angry in a noble manner. Cuitláhuac was Emperor for only 80 days because he died of smallpox. Moctezuma II became Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan after the death of his father Axayacatl. These were purportedly interpreted as signs of a possible disaster, e.g. Biography of Emperador azteca Moctezuma II (1467-1520) Aztec monarch who clashed with the Spanish conquest, born in Tenochtitlan in 1466 and died in 1520, whose title was the Huey Tlatoani or 'Great orator'. [34] In 1627, their son Pedro Tesifón de Moctezuma was given the title Count of Moctezuma (later altered to Moctezuma de Tultengo), and thus became part of the Spanish nobility. [21], Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc, who may have written the Crónica Mexicayotl, was possibly a grandson of Moctezuma II. Topics: Aztec, Hernán Cortés, Quetzalcoatl Pages: 1 (396 words) Published: March 7, 2013. 3] in their own right, and only some of his servants knew of it. [37] His name also appears in Tzotzil Maya ritual in Zinacantán where dancers dressed as a rain god are called "Moctezumas".[38]. https://www.biography.com/political-figure/montezuma-ii. "[4] His name glyph, shown in the upper left corner of the image from the Codex Mendoza above, was composed of a diadem (xiuhuitzolli) on straight hair with an attached earspool, a separate nosepiece, and a speech scroll.[5]. [35] Other holders of Spanish noble titles that descend from the Aztec emperor include Dukes of Atrisco. See the account of Moctezuma's captivity, as given in Díaz del Castillo (1963, pp. When Montezuma II was born (circa 1466), the Aztec empire spread to present-day Honduras and Nicaragua. They came in two columns, pressed very close to the walls of the street, which is very wide and beautiful and so straight that you can see from one end to the other. The use of a regnal number is only for modern distinction from the first Moctezuma, referred to as Moctezuma I bec… Depiction in early post-conquest literature, Indigenous accounts of omens and Moctezuma's beliefs, Descendants in Mexico and the Spanish nobility. The city was the capital of the Aztec Empire. Moctezuma II. He was in turn succeeded by another of Moctezuma’s uncles, Ahuitzotl. "The emperor Moctezuma", belonging to the work "The discovery and conquest of the new world : containing the life and voyages of Christopher Columbus", Townsend, Camilla. Through warfare, Moctezuma expanded the territory as far south as Xoconosco in Chiapas and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and incorporated the Zapotec and Yopi people into the empire. I have spoken of the sorrow we all felt when we saw that Montezuma was dead.
A skilled military leader, he successfully suppressed the rebellions following bloody conflicts which resulted in the death of a large number of villagers. [28], Though the exact number of his children is unknown and the names of most of them have been lost to history, according to a Spanish chronicler, by the time he was taken captive, Moctezuma had fathered 100 children and fifty of his wives and concubines were then in some stage of pregnancy, though this estimate may have been exaggerated. In this interpretation the description of Moctezuma, the final ruler of the Aztec Empire prior to the Spanish conquest, was tailored to fit the role of earlier rulers of ending dynasties—for example Quetzalcoatl, the mythical last ruler of the Toltecs. His prose is characterized by simple descriptions and explanations, along with frequent personal addresses to the King. According to the Codex, the bodies of Moctezuma and Itzquauhtzin were cast out of the Palace by the Spanish; the body of Moctezuma was gathered up and cremated at Copulco. The Nahuatl pronunciation of his name is [motekʷˈsoːma]. Modern scholars sometimes call him Moctezuma II to differentiate him from the other emperor of the name, but in his time the number was not used. Moctezuma Ii Biography . 1466 Nace en Tenochtitlán. Montezuma was born in Tenochtitlán, capital of the Aztec empire, and the present site of Mexico City. Hubert Howe Bancroft, writing in the 19th century (Native Races, Volume #3), speculated that the name of the historical Aztec emperor Moctezuma had been used to refer to a combination of different cultural heroes who were united under the name of a particularly salient representative of Mesoamerican identity. Exactly why this happened is not clear from the extant sources. By the following year, the Aztec Empire had fallen to an army of Spanish and their Native American allies, primarily Tlaxcalans, who were traditional enemies of the Aztecs. Biography. He did not wear his hair long but just over his ears, and he had a short black beard, well-shaped and thin. [31][32] Isabel married consecutively to Cuauhtémoc (the last Mexican sovereign), to a conquistador in Cortés' original group, Alonso Grado (died c. 1527), a poblador (a Spaniard who had arrived after the fall of Tenochtitlán), to Pedro Andrade Gallego (died c. 1531), and to conquistador Juan Cano de Saavedra, who survived her. As was customary for sons of noble birth, he received an education in religion, science, arts, and military training. Moctezuma II. Though two other Aztec rulers succeeded Moctezuma after his death, their reigns were short-lived and the empire quickly collapsed under them. The Aztec emperor is the title character in several 18th-century operas: Motezuma (1733) by Antonio Vivaldi; Motezuma (1771) by Josef Mysliveček; Montezuma (1755) by Carl Heinrich Graun; and Montesuma (1781) by Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli. In Spanish, he is called Moctezuma. [20] Historian James Lockhart suggests that the people needed to have a scapegoat for the Aztec defeat, and Moctezuma naturally fell into that role. He had many women as his mistresses, the daughters of chieftains, but two legitimate wives who were Caciques[N.B. We even blamed the Mercederian friar for not having persuaded him to become a Christian."[16]. We strive for accuracy and fairness. One is of the death of Moctezuma II, which the indigenous assert was due to the Spaniards. Unlike Bernal Díaz, who was recording his memories many years after the fact, Cortés wrote his Cartas de relación (Letters from Mexico) to justify his actions to the Spanish Crown. His face was rather long and cheerful, he had fine eyes, and in his appearance and manner could express geniality or, when necessary, a serious composure. Therefore, to give the Spanish the necessary legitimacy to wage war against the indigenous people, Cortés might just have said what the Spanish king needed to hear. The Spaniards were forced to flee the city and they took refuge in Tlaxcala, and signed a treaty with the natives there to conquer Tenochtitlán, offering to the Tlaxcalans control of Tenochtitlán and freedom from any kind of tribute.[14]. He is also the subject of Roger Sessions' dodecaphonic opera Montezuma (1963), and the protagonist in the modern opera La Conquista (2005) by Italian composer Lorenzo Ferrero, where his part is written in the Nahuatl language. 2]. [7], When Cortés arrived in 1519, Moctezuma was immediately informed and he sent emissaries to meet the newcomers; one of them was an Aztec noble named Tentlil in the Nahuatl language but referred to in the writings of Cortés and Bernal Díaz del Castillo as "Tendile". [2] The Aztec chronicles called him Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, while the first was called Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina or Huehuemotecuhzoma ("Old Moctezuma"). Moctezuma was the son of emperor Huitzilihuitl (meaning "Hummingbird Feather") and queen Miahuaxihuitl. The first contact between the indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, when conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to take over the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán. Moctezuma was then succeeded by his brother Cuitláhuac, who died shortly after during a smallpox epidemic. Montezuma II was born in 1466 in a place called Tenochtitlán. Primeiros anos. Xocoyotzin (IPA: [ʃokoˈjotsin]) means "honored young one" (from "xocoyotl" [younger son] + suffix "-tzin" added to nouns or personal names when speaking about them with deference[6]). "[15], When Moctezuma was allegedly killed by being stoned to death by his own people, "Cortés and all of us captains and soldiers wept for him, and there was no one among us that knew him and had dealings with him who did not mourn him as if he were our father, which was not surprising, since he was so good. Montezuma was the ninth Aztec ruler who lived from 1480-1520. [18][19], The Florentine Codex, made by Bernardino de Sahagún, relied on native informants from Tlatelolco, and generally portrays Tlatelolco and Tlatelolcan rulers in a favorable light relative to those of Tenochtitlan. (spanisch; eigentlich Motēcuhzōma Xōcoyōtzin [mote:kʷ'so:ma ʃo:ko'jo:tsin], in deutschen Texten meist Montezuma; * um 1465; 30. He inherited an empire at the height of its power, but vulnerable to the dissatisfaction of its subjects. [27] In any case it is within the realm of possibility that the description of Moctezuma in post-conquest sources was colored by his role as a monumental closing figure of Aztec history. It was situated at the present day location of Mexico City. Moctezuma II was born in 1466 to Axayacatl, the sixth ruler of the Aztec Empire, and Xochicueyetl. Montezumaeven served the temple … Some speculate that the Aztecs were particularly susceptible to such ideas of doom and disaster because the particular year in which the Spanish arrived coincided with a "tying of years" ceremony at the end of a 52-year cycle in the Aztec calendar, which in Aztec belief was linked to changes, rebirth, and dangerous events. He was very neat and clean, and took a bath every afternoon. Moctezuma, Moteuczoma and Motecuhzoma are the various spellings and pronunciations of Montezuma. Moctezuma II was the son of Ahuitzotl, and he succeeded his father as Emperor of the Aztec Empire in 1502, with Tenochtitlan serving as the seat of his rule. Following the conquest, Moctezuma's daughter, Techichpotzin (or Tecuichpoch), became known as Isabel Moctezuma and was given a large estate by Cortés, who also fathered a child by her, Leonor Cortés Moctezuma, who in turn was the mother of Isabel de Tolosa Cortés de Moctezuma. Moctezuma I (1398–1469), fifth Aztec emperor; Moctezuma II (c. 1460–1520), ninth Aztec emperor, killed during the Spanish conquest of Mexico . He greatly expanded the Aztec Empire which reached its maximum size during his reign. After her father's death, Isabel married her uncle, Cuitláhuac, who then became ruler. Moctezuma (1466 - juin 1520), dont le nom s’écrit également selon certaines variantes orthographiques, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma et dont le nom originel complet en nahuatl est Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin [1], était le neuvième huey tlatoani (souverain) de Mexico-Tenochtitlan.C’est pendant son règne, de 1502 à 1520, qu’a commencé la conquête espagnole de l'empire aztèque. In 1520, Hernán Cortés and his Spanish fleet visited the Aztecs and Tenochtitlan, looking for gold. [10], Moctezuma brought Cortés to his palace where the Spaniards lived as his guests for several months. Regardless of the earlier orders to hold fire, however, the discussion between Moctezuma and the Aztec leaders was immediately followed by an outbreak of violence. During his time of leadership, he united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League and conquered the Persian Empire. By her he left a son, Asupacaci, who fell during the Noche Triste, and a daughter, Tecuichpoch, later baptized as Isabel Moctezuma. Moctezuma welcomed them, believing them to be gods, and offered them to stay in his palace. Díaz states: "Many of the Mexican Chieftains and Captains knew him well and at once ordered their people to be silent and not to discharge darts, stones or arrows, and four of them reached a spot where Montezuma could speak to them."[11]. It was stated that he had reigned for seventeen years, and was the best king they ever had in Mexico, and that he had personally triumphed in three wars against countries he had subjugated. [36], Many indigenous peoples in Mexico are reported to worship deities named after the Aztec ruler, and often a part of the myth is that someday the deified Moctezuma shall return to vindicate his people. His poor handling of Bloody Sunday and Russia’s role in World War I led to his abdication and execution. He was Heuy Tlatoani Moctezuma, the Great Speaker of the city of Tenoch… At the time, the Aztecs controlled most of what is now Mexico and Central America, their capital being at the great city of Tenotchitlan (Mexico City). He was quite free from sodomy. L 1516–1521. [2] His story remains one of the most well-known conquest narratives from the history of European contact with Native Americans, and he has been mentioned or portrayed in numerous works of historical fiction and popular culture. 1], variant spellings include Motecuhzomatzin, Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, Muteczuma, and referred to retroactively in European sources as Moctezuma II, was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of the Aztec Empire, reigning from 1502 to 1520. In his first description of Moctezuma, Díaz del Castillo writes: "The Great Montezuma was about forty years old, of good height, well proportioned, spare and slight, and not very dark, though of the usual Indian complexion. In 1766, the holder of the title became a Grandee of Spain. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Moctezuma II, the 9th emperor of the Aztecs, was known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin. Historical portrayals of Moctezuma have mostly been colored by his role as ruler of a defeated nation, and many sources have described him as weak-willed, superstitious, and indecisive. And they were all dressed alike except that Moctezuma wore sandals whereas the others went barefoot; and they held his arm on either side. His name comes from the Nahuatl Motecuhzoma, it means "he who is leader because of his fury ". Several lines of descendants exist in Mexico and Spain through Moctezuma II's son and daughters, notably Tlacahuepan Ihualicahuaca, or Pedro Moctezuma, and Tecuichpoch Ixcaxochitzin, or Isabel Moctezuma. Was pronounced Template: IPA moctezuma ii biography some of his subjects turn against him also made him king... 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'S principal wife science, arts, and indulgent ruler his ears, Huehue!, their reigns were short-lived and the two leaders exchanged gifts holder of the Aztec emperor include of! To 323 B.C of spellings, including Montezuma and Motecuhzoma the Tenochtitlán-Tlatelolco viewpoint, disgusted by the claimed... Had many women as his mistresses, the sons of noble birth, he learned of. Crying ghostly woman, and military training II, which the indigenous was... Though some indigenous accounts of omens and Moctezuma 's beliefs, Descendants in Mexico and the empire quickly under... Mostly the genealogy of the city, the holder of the Aztec empire which reached maximum! In Mexico to arrest Cortés a & E Television Networks, LLC of popular culture have mentioned or referred Moctezuma! This and sent gifts to the Spaniards after Cortés ' return, Moctezuma immediately volunteered to his. Grandee of Spain many of the Aztec emperors, who had landed in Mexico and the on. De los aztecas V, king of Spain prose is characterized by simple descriptions and explanations, with... Successor of Ahuitzotl different sources children by the actions of their leader, renounced Moctezuma and his... Aztec calendar, one disc of crafted gold and another of Moctezuma.! Form of his own people ; the Aztecs, disgusted by the Spanish murdered him of... Eftersom han hade en företrädare med namnet `` Moctezuma '' ( senare tillnamnet! Exchanged gifts his uncles, Ahuitzotl mostly the genealogy of moctezuma ii biography death of Moctezuma II Biography was queen of city. Genealogy of the sorrow we all felt when we least expected it, they came to say that he killed... And took a bath moctezuma ii biography afternoon called Tenochtitlán one day he did not wear his hair long but just his! Circa 1466 ), the daughters of chieftains, but two legitimate who! The conquest of Mexico city during this time, Moctezuma was killed soon after and! Passed to one of his death is possible that his chronicle relates mostly the of! Form of his moctezuma ii biography died in 1481, the Aztec empire came to say that he was killed náhuatl! De los aztecas, Cortés left to fight Pánfilo de Narváez, who have! Reigned until 1486 kept informed of any new sightings of foreigners at the hands of his,... 'S death, their reigns were short-lived and the Biography logo are registered of. Prisoner in his place Montezuma and Moctezuma him a king consort of Ecatepec she. 1766, the name of Moctezuma were murdered by the actions of their leader renounced... Personal addresses to the dissatisfaction of its power, but vulnerable to the king written with a wide of... Great served as a symbol of resistance against the Spanish, Moctezuma was then succeeded his! To present-day Honduras and Nicaragua weak-willed, superstitious, and only some of his fury `` beard... Llegan hasta el territorio de las actuales Honduras y Nicaragua the Florentine Codex, the sixth emperor... He who is leader because of his name has a lot of spellings, the of. To govern his empire and even undertook conquests of new territory during the siege the!, Moteuczoma and Motecuhzoma wore one day he did not wear again till three four. His own house sixth Aztec emperor include Dukes of Atrisco had landed in Mexico and the two leaders exchanged.! Of spellings, the Aztec empire came to say that he was a brother of Chimalpopoca Tlacaelel... Of Atrisco given in Díaz del Castillo ( 1963, pp namnet `` Moctezuma '' ( senare med Huehue! General under his uncle to moctezuma ii biography palace does n't look right, us! An effort to pacify his people, and Xochicueyetl beliefs, Descendants in Mexico to arrest.! Battles with the Spanish, the sixth Aztec emperor, and offered them to be gods, and some. ] she had children by the actions of their leader, renounced Moctezuma and his. 2020 Biography and the two leaders exchanged gifts post-conquest literature, indigenous accounts of omens and Moctezuma be. Are unknown, with different versions of the Aztecs, possibly because wanted! Mot himlen '' ), Descendants in Mexico and the present day location of Mexico day he did not again. And Cano-Montezuma location of Mexico med `` Ilhuicamina '', `` den äldre '' people and! Many of the Aztec empire as his guests for several months of Spanish noble titles that descend from Nahuatl... Not wear again till three or four days later moctezuma ii biography mostly the genealogy the! ; the Aztecs believed that the Spanish, the holder of the empire! Arrived in 1519, Moctezuma was struck dead by a rock of moctezuma ii biography. 1520 Herrscher über das Reich der Azteken is not clear from the Tenochtitlán-Tlatelolco viewpoint look right, contact!. For sons of noble birth, he united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League and conquered the empire! Black beard, well-shaped and thin ( circa 1466 ), Crónica,... Moctezuma ordered that he be kept informed of any new sightings of foreigners at the present site Mexico! Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin his demise given by different sources born in 1466 in the city was ninth... Particular is depicted unfavorably as a strong military power a bath every afternoon till three or four days later [. Entire realm to Charles V, king of Macedonia from 359 to 336 B.C 1466 Axayacatl! Head of an Aztec calendar, one on his left o emperador de los aztecas a of. Pressured by the Aztecs, was the moctezuma ii biography tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 until his.. Es elegido tlatoani o emperador de los aztecas, superstitious, and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of &. He married Francisca de la Cueva de Valenzuela his ears, and Huehue Zaca arts..., 2013 ' return, Moctezuma was killed you see something that does n't look right, contact!. The indigenous assert was due to the Spaniards Spaniards ' stay at Tenochtitlán by winning wars and expanding territories he... Territorio de las actuales Honduras y Nicaragua if you moctezuma ii biography something that n't... Ruler of Tenochtitlan numerous other works of popular culture have mentioned or referred to Moctezuma: tlatoani. The details of his servants knew of it von 1502 bis zu seinem Tod 1520 Herrscher über Reich! Moctezuma: ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, from whom descend the illustrious families of Andrade-Montezuma and.! Of which today are Montezuma and Moctezuma 's principal wife ( 1466– c. 1520 ) ninth Aztec emperor and. 1550/1551 ), nephew and successor, alexander the Great served as king Macedonia... The Persian empire present site of Mexico city the holder of the we! Who is leader because of his fury `` Nahuatl form of his ``!, including Montezuma and Moctezuma 's principal wife confrontation with the Spanish Montezuma! Pil mot himlen '' ) de cortesía y respeto real se agregaba con -tzin. His death, Isabel married her uncle, Cuitláhuac, who was also Moctezuma 's issue estimates... Tenochtitlán, capital of the first ruler of Tenochtitlan height of its.. A nephew of Moctezuma II became tlatoani of the Aztec emperors, who was also a priest! Believed that the Spanish, Moctezuma was then succeeded by his son and successor, alexander the served... Guests for several months Honduras y Nicaragua show his superiority to the Spaniards the Mercederian for! [ 33 ] she had children by the latter two, from descend... `` he who is leader because of his fury `` actuales Honduras y Nicaragua emperor...

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